1Sbormistru. Žalm Davidův.2Pevně jsem doufal v Hospodina, on se ke mně sklonil a vyslyšel mé volání.3Vytáhl mě z podzemní jámy, z bahnitého kalu, na skálu postavil mé nohy, dodal síly mým krokům.4Novou píseň vložil mi do úst, chvalozpěv našemu Bohu. Mnozí to uvidí a nabudou úcty, budou doufat v Hospodina.5Blaze tomu, kdo svou naději vložil v Hospodina, kdo nic nemá s modláři, s těmi, kdo se uchylují ke lži.6Mnoho divů jsi učinil, Hospodine, můj Bože, nikdo se ti nevyrovná v úmyslech, které máš s námi, kdybych je chtěl hlásat, vypovědět, je jich více, než by se dalo sečíst.7V obětních darech si nelibuješ, zato jsi mi otevřel uši. Celopaly a smírné oběti nežádáš,8tehdy jsem řekl: „Hle, přicházím, ve svitku knihy je o mně psáno.9Rád splním tvou vůli, můj Bože, tvůj zákon je v mém nitru.“10Spravedlnost jsem zvěstoval ve velkém shromáždění, svým rtům jsem nebránil, ty to víš, Hospodine!11Nenechal jsem si pro sebe tvou spravedlnost, o tvé věrnosti a pomoci jsem mluvil, nezatajil jsem tvou lásku a tvou věrnost před velkým shromážděním.12Neodpírej mi, Hospodine, své slitování, tvá láska a věrnost ať mě neustále chrání,13neboť mě svírají útrapy bez počtu, dostihly mě mé viny, že ani nemohu vidět. Je jich víc než vlasů na mé hlavě a odvaha mi chybí.14Hospodine, prosím, vysvoboď mě! Hospodine, na pomoc mi pospěš!15Nechť se hanbou zardí všichni, kdo touží mě zničit, nechť ustoupí s pohanou, kdo se těší z mého neštěstí.16Ať se zděsí k vlastní potupě, kdo se mně posmívají!17Nechť jásají a v tobě se radují všichni, kteří tě hledají, ti, kteří touží po tvé pomoci, ať mohou stále říkat: „Buď veleben Hospodin!“ (40:18) Já jsem jen chudák a ubožák, ale Pán se o mě stará. Tys můj pomocník, můj zachránce: neprodlévej, můj Bože!
Jamieson Fausset Brown Bible Commentary 1
In this Psalm a celebration of God's deliverance is followed by a profession of devotion to His service. Then follows a prayer for relief from imminent dangers, involving the overthrow of enemies and the rejoicing of sympathizing friends. In Heb 10:5
, &c., Paul quotes Ps 40:6
as the words of Christ, offering Himself as a better sacrifice. Some suppose Paul thus accommodated David's words to express Christ's sentiments. But the value of his quotation would be thus destroyed, as it would have no force in his argument, unless regarded by his readers as the original sense of the passage in the Old Testament. Others suppose the Psalm describes David's feelings in suffering and joy; but the language quoted by Paul, in the sense given by him, could not apply to David in any of his relations, for as a type the language is not adapted to describe any event or condition of David's career, and as an individual representing the pious generally, neither he nor they could properly use it (see on Ps 40:7
, below). The Psalm must be taken then, as the sixteenth, to express the feelings of Christ's human nature. The difficulties pertinent to this view will be considered as they occur. (Psa. 40:1-17)
The figures for deep distress are illustrated in Jeremiah's history (Jer 38:6
). Patience and trust manifested in distress, deliverance in answer to prayer, and the blessed effect of it in eliciting praise from God's true worshippers, teach us that Christ's suffering is our example, and His deliverance our encouragement (Heb 5:7
; Heb 12:3
; 1Pet 4:12
inclined--(the ear, Ps 17:6
), as if to catch the faintest sigh. 3
a new song--(See on Ps 33:3
fear, and . . . trust--revere with love and faith. 4
Blessed-- (Ps 1:1
; Ps 2:12
respecteth--literally, "turns towards," as an object of confidence.
turn aside--from true God and His law to falsehood in worship and conduct. 5
be reckoned up in order--(compare Ps 5:3
; Ps 33:14
; Isa 44:7
), too many to be set forth regularly. This is but one instance of many. The use of the plural accords with the union of Christ and His people. In suffering and triumph, they are one with Him. 6
In Paul's view this passage has more meaning than the mere expression of grateful devotion to God's service. He represents Christ as declaring that the sacrifices, whether vegetable or animal, general or special expiatory offerings, would not avail to meet the demands of God's law, and that He had come to render the required satisfaction, which he states was effected by "the offering of the body of Christ" [Heb 10:10
], for that is the "will of God" which Christ came to fulfil or do, in order to effect man's redemption. We thus see that the contrast to the unsatisfactory character assigned the Old Testament offerings in Ps 40:6
is found in the compliance with God's law (compare Ps 40:7
). Of course, as Paul and other New Testament writers explain Christ's work, it consisted in more than being made under the law or obeying its precepts. It required an "obedience unto death" [Phil 2:8
], and that is the compliance here chiefly intended, and which makes the contrast with Ps 40:6
mine ears hast thou opened--Whether allusion is made to the custom of boring a servant's ear, in token of voluntary and perpetual enslavement (Exod 21:6
), or that the opening of the ear, as in Isa 48:8
; Isa 50:5
(though by a different word in Hebrew) denotes obedience by the common figure of hearing for obeying, it is evident that the clause is designed to express a devotion to God's will as avowed more fully in Ps 40:8
, and already explained. Paul, however, uses the words, "a body hast thou prepared me" [Heb 10:5
], which are found in the Septuagint in the place of the words, "mine ears hast thou opened." He does not lay any stress on this clause, and his argument is complete without it. It is, perhaps, to be regarded rather as an interpretation or free translation by the Septuagint, than either an addition or attempt at verbal translation. The Septuagint translators may have had reference to Christ's vicarious sufferings as taught in other Scriptures, as in Isa 53:4
; at all events, the sense is substantially the same, as a body was essential to the required obedience (compare Rom 7:4
; 1Pet 2:24
Then--in such case, without necessarily referring to order of time.
Lo, I come--I am prepared to do, &c.
in the volume of the book--roll of the book. Such rolls, resembling maps, are still used in the synagogues.
written of me--or on me, prescribed to me (2Kgs 22:13
). The first is the sense adopted by Paul. In either case, the Pentateuch, or law of Moses, is meant, and while it contains much respecting Christ directly, as Gen 3:15
; Gen 49:10
; Deut 18:15
, and, indirectly, in the Levitical ritual, there is nowhere any allusion to David. 9
I have preached--literally, "announced good tidings." Christ's prophetical office is taught. He "preached" the great truths of God's government of sinners. 11
may be rendered as an assertion, that God will not withhold (Ps 16:1
evils--inflicted by others.
iniquities--or penal afflictions, and sometimes calamities in the wide sense. This meaning of the word is very common (Ps 31:11
; Ps 38:4
; compare Gen 4:13
, Cain's punishment; Gen 19:15
, that of Sodom; 1Sam 28:10
, of the witch of En-dor; also 2Sam 16:12
; Job 19:29
; Isa 5:18
; Isa 53:11
). This meaning of the word is also favored by the clause, "taken hold of me," which follows, which can be said appropriately of sufferings, but not of sins (compare Job 27:20
; Ps 69:24
). Thus, the difficulties in referring this Psalm to Christ, arising from the usual reading of this verse, are removed. Of the terrible afflictions, or sufferings, alluded to and endured for us, compare Luke 22:39
, and the narrative of the scenes of Calvary.
my heart faileth me-- (Matt 26:38
), "My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death."
cannot look up--literally, "I cannot see," not denoting the depression of conscious guilt, as Luke 18:13
, but exhaustion from suffering, as dimness of eyes (compare Ps 6:7
; Ps 13:3
; Ps 38:10
). The whole context thus sustains the sense assigned to iniquities. 13
(Compare Ps 22:19
The language is not necessarily imprecatory, but rather a confident expectation (Ps 5:11
), though the former sense is not inconsistent with Christ's prayer for the forgiveness of His murderers, inasmuch as their confusion and shame might be the very means to prepare them for humbly seeking forgiveness (compare Acts 2:37
for a reward--literally, "in consequence of."
Aha--(Compare Ps 35:21
, Ps 35:25
(Compare Ps 35:27
love thy salvation--delight in its bestowal on others as well as themselves. 17
A summary of his condition and hopes.
thinketh upon--or provides for me. "He was heard," "when he had offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears, unto Him that was able to save him from death" [Heb 5:7