Catholic liturgical translation - Galatians - chapter 2

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Informace o Studijní on-line bibli (SOB) (CZ)

   Aplikace, kterou právě používáte, je biblický program Studijní on-line bible (dále jen SOB) verze 2. Jedná se prozatím o testovací verzi, která je oproti původní verzi postavena na HTML5, využívá JavaScriptovou knihovnu JQuery a framework Bootstrap. Nová verze přináší v některých ohledech zjednodušení, v některých ohledech je tomu naopak. Hlavní výhodou by měla být možnost využívání knihovny JQuery pro novou verzi tooltipů (ze kterých je nově možné kopírovat jejich obsah, případně kliknout na aktivní odkazy na nich). V nové verzi by zobrazení překladů i vyhledávek mělo vypadat "profesionálněji", k dispozici by měly být navíc např. informace o modulech apod. Přehrávač namluvených překladů je nyní postaven na technologii HTML5, tzn., že již ke svému provozu nepotřebuje podporu Flash playeru (který již oficiálně např. pro platformu Android není k dispozici, a u kterého se počítá s postupným všeobecným útlumem).

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Information about the "Online Bible Study" (SOB) (EN)

   Application you're using is a biblical program Online Bible Study (SOB), version Nr. 2. This is yet a testing release, which is (compared to the previous version) based on HTML5, uses JQuery JavaScript library and Bootstrap framework. The new version brings in some aspects simplifications. The major advantage should be the possibility of using JQuery for the new version tooltips (from which it is now possible to copy their content, or click on active hyperlinks). In the new version are also available informations about the modules and the like. The player of the narrated translations is now HTML5 powered (he does not need Flash player). I hope, that the new features will be gradually added.

 

 

 

Kontakt

(kontaktné informácie - contact info - Kontaktinformationen - контактная информация - informacje kontaktowe - información de contacto - πληροφορίες επικοινωνίας)

 

Diviš Libor
URL: www.obohu.cz
E-mail: infoobohu.cz
Skype: libordivis

 

 

 

Catholic liturgical translation

Český katolický překlad - Nový Zákon čili tzv. "liturgický překlad" (vzniklý pod vedením V. Bognera) vyšel v roce 1988. Překlad vychází z překladu NZ od Ondřeje Petrů.

 

Guestbook



 

 



hudson   (27.1.2024 - 14:55)
E-mail: hudsonpotgmail.com
Hello, I would like to contact developers to tell me where I can get "portuguese almeida revised and updated (with strong’s numbers)" because I want to make a website for studies. Please, for the growth of the kingdom of God.

Lukáš Znojemský   (21.9.2022 - 09:55)
Rád tuto stránku navštěvuji a učím se z ní v posledních týdnech. Velmi mi pomohla jazykově a přiblížila mi význam některých veršů, jejichž plný význam nebo zabarvení bylo ztraceno v překladu. "Obsluha" (tady se za výraz velmi omlouvám) je pohotová a technicky znalá. Velmi doporučuji.

Carola Teach   (14.6.2022 - 19:43)
E-mail: carola24681gmail.com
Hallo Libor Vielen Dank für den Hinweis. Die kroatische Bibel reicht. Soweit ich eine Freundin verstand, ist bosnisch und kroatisch das gleiche und serbisch ähnlich, war ja früher auch ein Land, Jugoslawien , nur das eben da zwischen islamischen und traditionell christlichen Streit von aussen reingebracht und geschürrt wurde. Ich leite die kroatische Bibelsuche gleich weiter Einige können lesen, einige nicht und so ist das Super installiert, das man die Bibel auch auf Audio stellen kann. Toll ist es, das auch die Nafterli Herz Tur-Sinai Bibel in deutsch dabei ist, denn da finde ich vieles, speziell Psalm 91 als Beispiel authentischer formuliert, als in allen anderen deutschen Bibeln. Das jüdische Neue Testament von David H. Stern habe ich auch, aber die Nafterli Herz Tur-Sinai Bibel ist mir persönlich sehr wichtig. Vielen Dank Libor für diese kompakte Internet Webseiten- Arbeit für den Herrn, uns sein noch besser studieren und weiter geben zu können Shalom .

CarolaTeach   (14.6.2022 - 12:32)
E-mail: carola24681gmail.com
Wer hat diese Seite ermöglicht und wer wartet diese Seiteund bezahlt die Website Kosten ? Mit dieser Website dient ihr Gott dem Vater zum Bau der Gemeinde Gottes. Und wir wurden im Buch Korinther aufgerufen, da wo wir genährt werden, auch zu unterstützen. Ich bitte den Admin dieser Seite, mir per email die Kontonummer mitzuteilen, dass ich mit Gaben mtl.segnen kann und nicht nur fromme Sprüche loslasse, denn seit kurzem bekam ich den Link dieser Seite und arbeite sehr gerne auf dieser Seite und gebe den Link weiter. Bitte das sich der Webseitengründer meldet. Danke.

Herzlichen Dank für Ihr Angebot. Aber ich brauche Ihre Hilfe nicht, ich leide nicht an Mangel :-) Wenn Sie helfen möchten, helfen Sie bitte jemandem in Ihrer Nähe.    Libor

Carola Teach   (14.6.2022 - 12:12)
E-mail: carola24681gmail.com
Vielen Dank für diese Möglichkeit Bibel-Ausgaben vergleichen zu können. Eine sehr gut aufgebaute Strukturierung und sehr bedien- freundlich. Ich hätte eine Bittende Frage. Habt Ihr auch die bosnische Bibel oder besteht da Möglichkeit, auch für Bosnieer, Kroaten, Serben die bosnische Bibel hier zu hinterlegen. Ich habe seit 2015 sehr viel Kontakt zu Bosnierer , Kroaten, Serben und Albanern Kosovo und muß Bibelstellen immer auf google übersetzen, um ihnen die Bibel näher zu bringen, was sie dankbar annehmen, aber bei Google habe ich nie die Sicherheit, dass die Übersetzung gut geprüft ist. Kommen auch Bibeln als bosnisch - und albanische Bibeln hinzu ? Danke

Außer der bosnischen Bibel ist alles, was benötigt wird, bereits hier in der SOB (Studien Online Bible) enthalten. Diese Übersetzungen sind im Abschnitt "Andere europäische Übersetzungen" zu finden. Serbische Bibel (Kyrillisch), Serbische Bibel (Đuro Daničić, Vuk Karadžić - 1865), Albanian Bibel und Kroatische Bibel. Sie können die bosnische Bibel im PDF-Format HIER herunterladen.    Libor

Joe   (4.3.2021 - 17:49)
E-mail: joe.jace.mail.de
Hallo und vielen Dank für die hilfreiche Suchfunktion bei den hebräischen Bibeln – ich benutze sie seit Jahren zur Überprüfung der masoretischen Zählungen von Wortpaaren. Ein Schreibfehler am Ende von Josua 11,16 (Elberfelder 1905) "und das ebirge Israel und seine Niederung", es müsste heißen "und das Gebirge Israel und seine Niederung". Grüße aus Zittau / Sachsen

Danke. Natürlich hast du recht - ich habe es bereits behoben.    Libor

Josef   (4.2.2021 - 15:51)
E-mail: pepas74seznam.cz
Tak tohle mě velmi potěšilo. Je to dobře ovladatelné na rozdíl od jiných zdrojů. Děkuji moc! :)

Lukáš   (24.11.2020 - 10:02)
E-mail: lukasnemecek536gmail.com
Chyba v textu Kat. lit. překlad. Zjevení 11, 10. protože tito dva poroci jim způsobili hodně trápení.

Zdeněk Staněk   (22.8.2020 - 14:36)
E-mail: zdenek.stanekwhitepaper.bluefile.cz
Chybí 'ě': http://obohu.cz/csp.php?k=2Te&kap=3&v=4

Vskutku. Již jsem to opravil.    Libor

Ani Gallert   (4.7.2018 - 16:24)
E-mail: cactus.gomeragmail.com
Vielen, vielen Dank für diese Seite (und dass wir sie kostenfrei nutzen können)! Sie ist sehr gut gemacht und eröffnet beim Bibelstudium völlig neue Einblicke! Eine dringende Frage habe ich zur Adolf Ernst Knoch Bibel - die Begriffe, die kursiv und hell in den Versen dargestellt sind - bedeuteten diese, die Worte wurden von Knoch hinzugefügt, weil im Original nicht mehr erhalten? Oder wie ist das zu verstehen? Vielen Dank und Gottes Segen, Ani

Hallo, Ani. Kursiv und hell - das sind die Worte, die nicht im Originaltext sind, aber sie sind wichtig für das richtige Verständnis. Sie können es im VERGLEICHS-MODUS gut sehen. Schauen Sie sich zum Beispiel das Münchener Neues Testament an...     Libor

Andreas Boldt   (27.2.2018 - 05:41)
E-mail: andyp1gmx.net
Ich habe diese Seite gefunden um einfach Bibel online zu benutzen in verschiedenen Sprachen - ich bin überzeugt das Gott sein Wort bewahrt hat in allen Sprachen. Und weiß bis zum Ende hin wird sein Wort leuchten. "Denn mein Wort wird nicht leer zu mir zurückkehren..." - Gottes Segen für die segensreiche Arbeit die ihr tut. Leider kann ich kein Tscheschisch aber habe auch Bekannte in der Slowakei und bin Euch sehr verbunden im Sinne des Protestantismus. Ich benutze die Bibel jeden Tag. Andreas Boldt

Ich danke Ihnen, Andreas. Diese Anwendung ist viel mehr als nur eine Online-Bibel. Versuchen Sie bitte herauszufinden, welche Optionen und Funktionen SOB anbietet... (Anleitung) Libor

Juraj Kaličiak   (5.2.2018 - 11:06)
E-mail: juro.kaliciakgmail.com
Nech Vám pán odplatí Jeho spôsobom, toto je nejlepšia verzia práce s Božím slovom. Vyhladávanie, režim porovnávania sú skvelé. Pracujem s touto stránkou už celé roky a cítim povinnosť povzbudiť autorov, že je toto určite požehnaná práca. Veľa to používam aj na mobile, ako rýchlu online bibliu. Oceňujem odvahu vydania prekladu Jozefa Roháčka v edícii Dušana Seberíniho s doslovným prekladom Božieho mena. Výborná je možnosť porovnania s gréckymi originál textami so strongovými číslami. Buďte požehnaní bratia. Juraj

Vďaka Juraj. Je príjemné počuť, že tento biblický program používate už dlhší čas, a že ste s ním spokojný. Snažím sa SOB stále vylepšovať. Nie sú žiadni autori - je iba jeden amatér, ktorý chce (okrem bežných funkcií biblických programov) najmä sprístupniť originálny text biblie pre všetkých - aj bez znalosti biblických jazykov. Libor

John Builer   (30.1.2018 - 07:07)
E-mail: Johnbuilercontbay.com
Ganz, ganz grosse Klasse, diese Seite, besser, als alles andere!!! Vielen Dank!!! Bitte machen Sie so weiter!!! Danke! Regards, John Builer

Danke, ich schätze es wirklich ...

Zdeněk Staněk   (27.12.2017 - 15:34)
E-mail: zdenek.stanekwhitepaper.bluefile.cz
WLC 5M 6:4 v prvním slově chybí souhláska ajin a v posledním slově dálet. Díval jsem se do jiných zpracování textu WLC a tam jsou.

OK. Upravil jsem text podle textu Tanachu.

Vladimir Bartoš   (23.11.2017 - 23:15)
E-mail: bartos.vlemail.cz
Tyto stránky jsem objevil náhodou, když jsem hledal on line čtení Bible. Jsem úplně nadšený z toho, jaké jsou zde možností a chci za to poděkovat!!

Jsem rád, že Vás tento on-line biblický program tolik zaujal. Věřím, že se to ještě zlepší, když si prostudujete návod, případně novinky na Facebooku :-)

Libor Diviš   (14.10.2016 - 08:02)
Vítejte v knize hostů. Sem můžete vkládat své komentáře k nové verzi SOB (Studijní on-line bible). Jen bych Vás chtěl poprosit, abyste si předtím prostudovali návod k tomuto biblickému programu.

Welcome. Here you can write your comments relating to this new version of the online biblical program SOB (Online Bible Study) - your assessment, proposals, error notices etc.

 

 

   

Catholic liturgical translation


1Potom jsem šel znovu po čtrnácti letech do Jeruzaléma s Barnabášem a vzal jsem s sebou také Tita. 2Šel jsem tam, protože se mi o tom dostalo zjevení. Předložil jsem jim tam evangelium, jak ho kážu mezi pohany, a v soukromí jsem to vyložil těm, kteří něco znamenají, zdali snad neběžím nebo jsem neběžel nadarmo. 3Ale ani Titus, který byl se mnou, nebyl přinucen dát se obřezat, ačkoli byl Řek. 4Tu otázku rozvířili vetřelí falešní bratři. Vloudili se mezi nás a slídili po naší svobodě, kterou máme v křesťanství, aby nás uvedli do otročení. 5Ale ani na okamžik jsme jim neustoupili a nepoddali se jim, aby vám zůstala pravda evangelia nezkráceně. 6A nebylo překážky ani ze strany těch, kteří něco znamenají. - Čím byli předtím, to se mě netýká; Bůh nedělá rozdíly v lidech. - Ti tedy, kdo něco znamenají, nic dalšího mi neuložili. 7Spíše naopak. Viděli, že je mně svěřeno, abych hlásal evangelium mezi pohany, jako zase Petrovi mezi židy. 8Vždyť ten, který pomáhal Petrovi v apoštolátě mezi židy, pomáhal i mně mezi pohany. 9Poněvadž Jakub, Petr a Jan - uznávané sloupy - poznávali, že mám k tomu od Boha milost, podali mně i Barnabášovi pravici na znamení, že patříme k sobě: my že tedy máme být pro pohany, oni pro židy. 10Jenom nám doporučili, abychom pamatovali na chudé. A to mi také vždycky leželo na srdci. 11Když však přišel Petr do Antiochie, přímo jsem proti němu vystoupil, protože si zasloužil výtku. 12Než totiž přišli jistí lidé z Jakubova okolí, jídal společně s pohanokřesťany. Ale když přišli, začal se stranit a odlučovat, protože měl obavy z oněch židokřesťanů. 13A s ním se začali tak neupřímně chovat i ostatní židokřesťané, takže dokonce i Barnabáš byl stržen tou jejich neupřímností. 14Když jsem však viděl, že jejich jednání není ve shodě s pravdou evangelia, řekl jsem Petrovi přede všemi: »Ty jsi žid, a přesto žiješ jako křesťané z pohanství, a ne ze židovství. Jak tedy můžeš nutit pohany, aby zachovávali židovské zvyky?« 15My jsme ovšem rodem Židé, a ne 'hříšníci pocházející od pohanů'. 16Víme, že člověk je uznán za spravedlivého jen tehdy, když uvěří v Ježíše Krista, a ne když dělá skutky, jak je nařizuje Zákon. Z toho důvodu jsme přijali víru v Ježíše Krista. Tak jsme byli uznáni za spravedlivé proto, že jsme uvěřili v Krista, ne proto, že jsme dělali skutky Zákona. Pro skutky Zákona nebude žádný člověk uznán za spravedlivého. 17My se tedy snažíme, abychom byli ospravedlněni v Kristu. Ale kdyby se ukázalo, že přesto jsme hříšníci, nenapomáhá pak Kristus k něčemu hříšnému? Naprosto ne! 18Kdybych zase znovu stavěl to, co jsem dříve bořil, usvědčoval bych sám sebe jako viníka před Zákonem. 19Vždyť skrze Zákon jsem Zákonu umřel, abych žil pro Boha. Spolu s Kristem jsem ukřižován.  20Už nežiji já, ale žije ve mně Kristus. Avšak tento život v těle žiji ve víře v Božího Syna, protože on mě miloval a za mě se obětoval. 21Já nepohrdám Boží milostí. Kdyby se totiž k ospravedlnění docházelo zachováváním Zákona, pak by Kristus umřel nadarmo.


Matthew Henry - Complete Commentary
 1   It should seem, by the account Paul gives of himself in this chapter, that, from the very first preaching and planting of Christianity, there was a difference of apprehension between those Christians who had first been Jews and those who had first been Gentiles. Many of those who had first been Jews retained a regard to the ceremonial law, and strove to keep up the reputation of that; but those who had first been Gentiles had no regard to the law of Moses, but took pure Christianity as perfective of natural religion, and resolved to adhere to that. Peter was the apostle to them; and the ceremonial law, though dead with Christ, yet not being as yet buried, he connived at the respect kept up for it. But Paul was the apostle of the Gentiles; and, though he was a Hebrew of the Hebrews, yet he adhered to pure Christianity. Now in this chapter he tells us what passed between him and the other apostles, and particularly between him and Peter hereupon.
In these verses he informs us of another journey which he took to Jerusalem, and of what passed between him and the other apostles there, Galat 2:1-Galat 2:10. Here he acquaints us,
I. With some circumstances relating to this his journey thither. As particularly, 1. With the time of it: that it was not till fourteen years after the former (mentioned Galat 1:18), or, as others choose to understand it, from his conversion, or from the death of Christ. It was an instance of the great goodness of God that so useful a person was for so many years preserved in his work. And it was some evidence that he had no dependence upon the other apostles, but had an equal authority with them, that he had been so long absent from them, and was all the while employed in preaching and propagating pure Christianity, without being called into question by them for it, which it may be thought he would have been, had he been inferior to them, and his doctrine disapproved by them. 2. With his companions in it: he went up with Barnabas, and took with him Titus also. If the journey here spoken of was the same with that recorded Acts 15 (as many think), then we have a plain reason why Barnabas went along with him; for he was chosen by the Christians at Antioch to be his companion and associate in the affair he went about. But, as it does not appear that Titus was put into the same commission with him, so the chief reason of his taking him along with him seems to have been to let those at Jerusalem see that he was neither ashamed nor afraid to own the doctrine which he had constantly preached; for though Titus had now become not only a convert to the Christian faith, but a preacher of it too, yet he was by birth a Gentile and uncircumcised, and therefore, by making him his companion, it appeared that their doctrine and practice were of a piece, and that as he had preached the non-necessity of circumcision, and observing the law of Moses, so he was ready to own and converse with those who were uncircumcised. 3. With the reason of it, which was a divine revelation he had concerning it: he went up be revelation; not of his own head, much less as being summoned to appear there, but by special order and direction from Heaven. It was a privilege with which this apostle was often favoured to be under a special divine direction in his motions and undertakings; and, though this is what we have no reason to expect, yet it should teach us, in every thing of moment we go about, to endeavour, as far as we are capable, to see our way made plain before us, and to commit ourselves to the guidance of Providence.
II. He gives us an account of his behaviour while he was at Jerusalem, which was such as made it appear that he was not in the least inferior to the other apostles, but that both his authority and qualifications were every way equal to theirs. He particularly acquaints us,
1. That he there communicated the gospel to them, which he preached among the Gentiles, but privately, etc. Here we may observe both the faithfulness and prudence of our great apostle. (1.) His faithfulness in giving them a free and fair account of the doctrine which he had all along preached among the Gentiles, and was still resolved to preach - that of pure Christianity, free from all mixtures of Judaism. This he knew was a doctrine that would be ungrateful to many there, and yet he was not afraid to own it, but in a free and friendly manner lays it open before them and leaves them to judge whether or no it was not the true gospel of Christ. And yet, (2.) He uses prudence and caution herein, for fear of giving offence. He chooses rather to do it in a more private than in a public way, and to those that were of reputation, that is, to the apostles themselves, or to the chief among the Jewish Christians, rather than more openly and promiscuously to all, because, when he came to Jerusalem, there were multitudes that believed, and yet continued zealous for the law, Acts 21:20. And the reason of this his caution was lest he should run, or had run, in vain, lest he should stir up opposition against himself and thereby either the success of his past labours should be lessened, or his future usefulness be obstructed; for nothing more hinders the progress of the gospel than differences of opinion about the doctrines of it, especially when they occasion quarrels and contentions among the professors of it, as they too usually do. It was enough to his purpose to have his doctrine owned by those who were of greatest authority, whether it was approved by others or not. And therefore, to avoid offence, he judges it safest to communicate it privately to them, and not in public to the whole church. This conduct of the apostle may teach all, and especially ministers, how much need they have of prudence, and how careful they should be to use it upon all occasions, as far as is consistent with their faithfulness.
2. That in his practice he firmly adhered to the doctrine which he had preached. Paul was a man of resolution, and would adhere to his principles; and therefore, though he had Titus with him, who was a Greek, yet he would not suffer him to be circumcised, because he would not betray the doctrine of Christ, as he had preached it to the Gentiles. It does not appear that the apostles at all insisted upon this; for, though they connived at the use of circumcision among the Jewish converts, yet they were not for imposing it upon the Gentiles. But there were others who did, whom the apostle here calls false brethren, and concerning whom he informs us that they were unawares brought in, that is, into the church, or into their company, and that they came only to spy out their liberty which they had in Christ Jesus, or to see whether Paul would stand up in defence of that freedom from the ceremonial law which he had taught as the doctrine of the gospel, and represented as the privilege of those who embraced the Christian religion. Their design herein was to bring them into bondage, which they would have effected could they have gained the point they aimed at; for, had they prevailed with Paul and the other apostles to have circumcised Titus, they would easily have imposed circumcision upon other Gentiles, and so have brought them under the bondage of the law of Moses. But Paul, seeing their design, would by no means yield to them; he would not give place by subjection, no, not for an hour, not in this one single instance; and the reason of it was that the truth of the gospel might continue with them - that the Gentile Christians, and particularly the Galatians, might have it preserved to them pure and entire, and not corrupted with the mixtures of Judaism, as it would have been had he yielded in this matter. Circumcision was at that time a thing indifferent, and what in some cases might be complied with without sin; and accordingly we find even Paul himself sometimes giving way to it, as in the case of Timothy, Acts 16:3. But when it is insisted on as necessary, and his consenting to it, though only in a single instance, is likely to be improved as giving countenance to such an imposition, he has too great a concern for the purity and liberty of the gospel, to submit to it; he would not yield to those who were for the Mosaic rites and ceremonies, but would stand fast in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, which conduct of his may give us occasion to observe that what under some circumstances may lawfully be complied with, yet, when that cannot be done without betraying the truth, or giving up the liberty, of the gospel, it ought to be refused.
3. That, though he conversed with the other apostles, yet he did not receive any addition to his knowledge or authority from them, Galat 2:6. By those who seemed to be somewhat he means the other apostles, particularly James, Peter, and John, whom he afterwards mentions by name, Galat 2:9. And concerning these he grants that they were deservedly had in reputation by all, that they were looked upon (and justly too) as pillars of the church, who were set not only for its ornament, but for its support, and that on some accounts they might seem to have the advantage of him, in that they had seen Christ in the flesh, which he had not, and were apostles before him, yea, even while he continued a persecutor. But yet, whatever they were, it was no matter to him. This was no prejudice to his being equally an apostle with them; for God does not accept the persons of men on the account of any such outward advantages. As he had called them to this office, so he was at liberty to qualify others for it, and to employ them in it. And it was evident in this case that he had done so; for in conference they added nothing to him, they told him nothing but what he before knew by revelation, nor could they except against the doctrine which he communicated to them, whence it appeared that he was not at all inferior to them, but was as much called and qualified to be an apostle as they themselves were.
4. That the issue of this conversation was that the other apostles were fully convinced of his divine mission and authority, and accordingly acknowledged him as their fellow-apostle, Galat 2:7-Galat 2:10. They were not only satisfied with his doctrine, but they saw a divine power attending him, both in preaching it and in working miracles for the confirmation of it: that he who wrought effectually in Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, the same was mighty in him towards the Gentiles. And hence they justly concluded that the gospel of the uncircumcision was committed to Paul, as the gospel of the circumcision was to Peter. And therefore, perceiving the grace that was given to him (that he was designed to the honour and office of an apostle as well as themselves) they gave unto him and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, a symbol whereby they acknowledged their equality with them, and agreed that these should go to the heathen, while they continued to preach to the circumcision, as judging it most agreeable to the mind of Christ, and most conducive to the interest of Christianity, so to divide their work. And thus this meeting ended in an entire harmony and agreement; they approved both Paul's doctrine and conduct, they were fully satisfied in him, heartily embraced him as an apostle of Christ, and had nothing further to add, only that they would remember the poor, which of his own accord he was very forward to do. The Christians of Judea were at that time labouring under great wants and difficulties; and the apostles, out of their compassion to them and concern for them, recommend their case to Paul, that he should use his interest with the Gentile churches to procure a supply for them. This was a reasonable request; for, if the Gentiles were made partakers of their spiritual things, it was their duty to minister to them in carnal things, as Roma 15:27. And he very readily falls in with it, whereby he showed his charitable and catholic disposition, how ready he was to own the Jewish converts as brethren, though many of them could scarcely allow the like favour to the converted Gentiles, and that mere difference of opinion was no reason with him why he should not endeavour to relieve and help them. Herein he has given us an excellent pattern of Christian charity, and has taught us that we should by no means confine it to those who are just of the same sentiments with us, but be ready to extend it to all whom we have reason to look upon as the disciples of Christ.

 11   I. From the account which Paul gives of what passed between him and the other apostles at Jerusalem, the Galatians might easily discern both the falseness of what his enemies had insinuated against him and their own folly and weakness in departing from that gospel which he had preached to them. But to give the greater weight to what he had already said, and more fully to fortify them against the insinuations of the judaizing teachers, he acquaints them with another interview which he had with the apostle Peter at Antioch, and what passed between them there, _Galat 2:11-Galat 2:14. Antioch was one of the chief churches of the Gentile Christians, as Jerusalem was of those Christians who turned from Judaism to the faith of Christ. There is no colour of reason for the supposition that Peter was bishop of Antioch. If he had, surely Paul would not have withstood him in his own church, as we here find he did; but, on the contrary, it is here spoken of as an occasional visit which he made thither. In their other meeting, there had been good harmony and agreement. Peter and the other apostles had both acknowledged Paul's commission and approved his doctrine, and they parted very good friends. But in this Paul finds himself obliged to appose Peter, for he was to be blamed, a plain evidence that he was not inferior to him, and consequently of the weakness of the pope's pretence to supremacy and infallibility, as the successor of Peter. Here we may observe,
1. Peter's fault. When he came among the Gentile churches, he complied with them, and did eat with them, though they were not circumcised, agreeably to the instructions which were given in particular to him (Acts 10), when he was warned by the heavenly vision to call nothing common or unclean. But, when there came some Jewish Christians from Jerusalem, he grew more shy of the Gentiles, only to humour those of the circumcision and for fear of giving them offence, which doubtless was to the great grief and discouragement of the Gentile churches. Then he withdrew, and separated himself. His fault herein had a bad influence upon others, for the other Jews also dissembled with him; though before they might be better disposed, yet now, from his example, they took on them to scruple eating with the Gentiles, and pretended they could not in conscience do it, because they were not circumcised. And (would you think it?) Barnabas himself, one of the apostles of the Gentiles, and one who had been instrumental in planting and watering the churches of the Gentiles, was carried away with their dissimulation. Here note, (1.) The weakness and inconstancy of the best of men, when left to themselves, and how apt they are to falter in their duty to God, out of an undue regard to the pleasing of men. And, (2.) The great force of bad examples, especially the examples of great men and good men, such as are in reputation for wisdom and honour.
2. The rebuke which Paul gave him for his fault. Notwithstanding Peter's character, yet, when he observes him thus behaving himself to the great prejudice both of the truth of the gospel and the peace of the church, he is not afraid to reprove him for it. Paul adhered resolutely to his principles, when others faltered in theirs; he was as good a Jew as any of them (for he was a Hebrew of the Hebrews), but he would magnify his office as the apostle of the Gentiles, and therefore would not see them discouraged and trampled upon. When he saw that they walked not uprightly, according to the truth of the gospel - that they did not live up to that principle which the gospel taught, and which they had professed to own and embrace, namely, that by the death of Christ the partition-wall between Jew and Gentile was taken down, and the observance of the law of Moses was no longer in force - when he observed this, as Peter's offence was public, so he publicly reproved him for it: He said unto him before them all, If thou, being a Jew, livest after the manner of the Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, why compellest thou the Gentiles to live as do the Jews? Herein one part of his conduct was a contradiction to the other; for if he, who was a Jew, could himself sometimes dispense with the use of the ceremonial law, and live after the manner of the Gentiles, this showed that he did not look upon the observance of it as still necessary, even for the Jews themselves; and therefore that he could not, consistently with his own practice, impose it upon the Gentile Christians. And yet Paul charges him with this, yea, represents him as compelling the Gentiles to live as did the Jews - not by open force and violence, but this was the tendency of what he did; for it was in effect to signify this, that the Gentiles must comply with the Jews, or else not be admitted into Christian communion.
II. Paul having thus established his character and office, and sufficiently shown that he was not inferior to any of the apostles, no, not to Peter himself, from the account of the reproof he gave him he takes occasion to speak of that great fundamental doctrine of the gospel - That justification is only by faith in Christ, and not by the works of the law (though some think that all he says to the end of the chapter is what he said to Peter at Antioch), which doctrine condemned Peter for his symbolizing with the Jews. For, if it was the principle of his religion that the gospel is the instrument of our justification and not the law, then he did very ill in countenancing those who kept up the law, and were for mixing it with faith in the business of our justification. This was the doctrine which Paul had preached among the Galatians, to which he still adhered, and which it is his great business in this epistle to mention and confirm. Now concerning this Paul acquaints us,
1. With the practice of the Jewish Christians themselves: We, says he, who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles (even we who have been born and bred in the Jewish religion, and not among the impure Gentiles), knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we ourselves have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law. And, if we have thought it necessary to seek justification by the faith of Christ, why then should we hamper ourselves with the law? What did we believe in Christ for? Was it not that we might be justified by the faith of Christ? And, if so, is it not folly to go back to the law, and to expect to be justified either by the merit of moral works or the influence of any ceremonial sacrifices or purifications? And if it would be wrong in us who are Jews by nature to return to the law, and expect justification by it, would it not be much more so to require this of the Gentiles, who were never subject to it, since by the works of the law no flesh shall be justified? To give the greater weight to this he adds (Galat 2:17), But if, while we seek to be justified by Christ, we ourselves also are found sinners, is Christ the minister of sin? If, while we seek justification by Christ alone, and teach others to do so, we ourselves are found giving countenance or indulgence to sin, or rather are accounted sinners of the Gentiles, and such as it is not fit to have communion with, unless we also observe the law of Moses, is Christ the minister of sin? Will it not follow that he is so, if he engage us to receive a doctrine that gives liberty to sin, or by which we are so far from being justified that we remain impure sinners, and unfit to be conversed with? This, he intimates, would be the consequence, but he rejects it with abhorrence: God forbid, says he, that we should entertain such a thought of Christ, or of his doctrine, that thereby he should direct us into a way of justification that is defective and ineffectual, and leave those who embrace it still unjustified, or that would give the least encouragement to sin and sinners. This would be very dishonourable to Christ, and it would be very injurious to them also. For, says he (Galat 2:18), if I build again the things which I destroyed - if I (or any other), who have taught that the observance of the Mosaic law is not necessary to justification, should now, by word or practice, teach or intimate that it is necessary - I make myself a transgressor; I own myself to be still an impure sinner, and to remain under the guilt of sin, notwithstanding my faith in Christ; or I shall be liable to be charged with deceit and prevarication, and acting inconsistently with myself. Thus does the apostle argue for the great doctrine of justification by faith without the works of the law from the principles and practice of the Jewish Christians themselves, and from the consequences that would attend their departure from it, whence it appeared that Peter and the other Jews were much in the wrong in refusing to communicate with the Gentile Christians, and endeavouring to bring them under the bondage of the law.
2. He acquaints us what his own judgment and practice were. (1.) That he was dead to the law. Whatever account others might make of it, yet, for his part, he was dead to it. He knew that the moral law denounced a curse against all that continue not in all things written therein, to do them; and therefore he was dead to it, as to all hope of justification and salvation that way. And as for the ceremonial law, he also knew that it was now antiquated and superseded by the coming of Christ, and therefore, the substance having come, he had no longer any regard to the shadow. He was thus dead to the law, through the law itself; it discovered itself to be at an end. By considering the law itself, he saw that justification was not to be expected by the works of it (since none could perform a perfect obedience to it) and that there was now no further need of the sacrifices and purifications of it, since they were done away in Christ, and a period was put to them by his offering up himself a sacrifice for us; and therefore, the more he looked into it the more he saw that there was no occasion for keeping up that regard to it which the Jews pleaded for. But, though he was thus dead to the law, yet he did not look upon himself as with law. He had renounced all hopes of justification by the works of it, and was unwilling any longer to continue under the bondage of it; but he was far from thinking himself discharged from his duty to God; on the contrary, he was dead to the law, that he might live unto God. The doctrine of the gospel, which he had embraced, instead of weakening the bond of duty upon him, did but the more strengthen and confirm it; and therefore, though he was dead to the law, yet it was only in order to his living a new and better life to God (as Roma 7:4, Roma 7:6), such a life as would be more agreeable and acceptable to God than his observance of the Mosaic law could now be, that is, a life of faith in Christ, and, under the influence thereof, of holiness and righteousness towards God. Agreeably hereunto he acquaints us, (2.) That, as he was dead to the law, so he was alive unto God through Jesus Christ (Galat 2:20): I am crucified with Christ, etc. And here in his own person he gives us an excellent description of the mysterious life of a believer. [1.] He is crucified, and yet he lives; the old man is crucified (Roma 6:6), but the new man is living; he is dead to the world, and dead to the law, and yet alive to God and Christ; sin is mortified, and grace quickened. [2.] He lives, and yet not he. This is strange: I live, and yet not I; he lives in the exercise of grace; he has the comforts and the triumphs of grace; and yet that grace is not from himself, but from another. Believers see themselves living in a state of dependence. [3.] He is crucified with Christ, and yet Christ lives in him; this results from his mystical union with Christ, by means of which he is interested in the death of Christ, so as by virtue of that to die unto sin; and yet interested in the life of Christ, so as by virtue of that to live unto God. [4.] He lives in the flesh, and yet lives by faith; to outward appearance he lives as other people do, his natural life is supported as others are; yet he has a higher and nobler principle that supports and actuates him, that of faith in Christ, and especially as eyeing the wonders of his love in giving himself for him. Hence it is that, though he lives in the flesh, yet he does not live after the flesh. Note, Those who have true faith live by that faith; and the great thing which faith fastens upon is Christ's loving us and giving himself for us. The great evidence of Christ's loving us is his giving himself for us; and this is that which we are chiefly concerned to mix faith with, in order to our living to him.
Lastly, The apostle concludes this discourse with acquainting us that by the doctrine of justification by faith in Christ, without the works of the law (which he asserted, and others opposed), he avoided two great difficulties, which the contrary opinion was loaded with: - 1. That he did not frustrate the grace of God, which the doctrine of the justification by the works of the law did; for, as he argues (Roma 11:6), If it be of works, it is no more of grace. 2. That he did not frustrate the death of Christ; whereas, if righteousness come by the law, then it must follow that Christ has died in vain; for, if we look for salvation by the law of Moses, then we render the death of Christ needless: for to what purpose should he be appointed to die, if we might have been saved without it?


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