1Když nastalo ráno, uradili se všichni velekněží a starší lidu proti Ježíšovi, že ho usmrtí. 2Spoutali ho, odvedli a vydali vladaři Pontiu Pilátovi. 3Když jeho zrádce Juda uviděl, že byl Ježíš odsouzen, pocítil lítost a vrátil třicet stříbrných velekněžím a starším, 4říkaje: „Zhřešil jsem, zradil jsem nevinnou krev!“ Oni však řekli: „Co je nám po tom? To je tvoje věc! “ 5Tu pohodil ty stříbrné do svatyně a vzdálil se; pak odešel a oběsil se. 6Velekněží vzali ty stříbrné a řekli: „Není dovoleno vhodit je do chrámové pokladny, protože je to cena za krev.“ 7Uradili se a koupili za ně hrnčířovo pole k pohřbívání cizinců. 8Proto je ono pole až dodnes nazýváno Polem krve. 9Tehdy se naplnilo, co bylo řečeno skrze proroka Jeremjáše: ‚I vzali třicet stříbrných, cenu Oceněného, který byl oceněn od synů Izraele; 10a dali je za hrnčířovo pole, jak mi nařídil Pán.‘ 11Ježíš byl postaven před vladaře. Vladař se ho otázal: „Ty jsi král Židů?“ Ježíš mu řekl: „Ty to říkáš.“ 12A když ho velekněží a starší obviňovali, nic neodpověděl. 13Tu mu Pilát řekl: „Neslyšíš, co všechno proti tobě vypovídají? “ 14Ale on mu neodpověděl ani na jedno obvinění, takže se vladař velmi divil. 15O svátcích měl vladař ve zvyku propouštět zástupu jednoho vězně, kterého chtěli. 16Tehdy tam měli významného vězně, který se jmenoval Barabáš. 17Když se tedy lidé shromáždili, řekl jim Pilát: „Koho chcete, abych vám propustil, Barabáše, nebo Ježíše, zvaného Kristus?“ 18Věděl totiž, že ho vydali ze závisti. 19Když seděl na soudní stolici, vzkázala mu jeho žena: „Neměj nic s tím spravedlivým, neboť jsem dnes kvůli němu ve snu mnoho vytrpěla.“ 20Velekněží a starší přesvědčili zástupy, aby si vyžádaly Barabáše, ale Ježíše aby daly zahubit. 21Vladař jim tedy řekl: „Kterého z těch dvou chcete, abych vám propustil?“ Oni řekli: „Barabáše!“ 22Pilát jim řekl: „Co tedy mám udělat s Ježíšem, zvaným Kristus?“ Všichni mu řekli: „Ať je ukřižován!“ 23A vládce řekl: „Co tedy udělal zlého?“ Oni však ještě víc křičeli: „Ať je ukřižován!“ 24Když Pilát uviděl, že to ničemu neprospívá, ale že pozdvižení je čím dál větší, vzal vodu, umyl si před zástupem ruce a řekl: „Jsem nevinen touto krví. Je to vaše věc. “ 25A všechen lid na to řekl: „Jeho krev na nás a na naše děti!“ 26Pak jim propustil Barabáše. Ježíše dal zbičovat a vydal ho, aby byl ukřižován. 27Tehdy vladařovi vojáci vzali Ježíše do vládního paláce a shromáždili k němu celý oddíl vojska. 28Svlékli ho a oblékli mu šarlatový plášť, 29upletli věnec z trní a vložili jej na jeho hlavu a do pravé ruky mu dali rákosovou hůl. Padali před ním na kolena a posmívali se mu: „Buď zdráv, králi Židů!“ 30A když ho poplivali, vzali tu hůl a začali ho bít po hlavě. 31Když se mu naposmívali, svlékli mu plášť a oblékli mu jeho šaty. A odvedli ho, aby ho ukřižovali. 32Když vycházeli, potkali jednoho člověka z Kyrény, jménem Šimon; toho přinutili, aby vzal jeho kříž. 33Když přišli na místo zvané Golgota, což znamená ‚Místo lebky‘, 34dali Ježíšovi pít víno smíchané se žlučí. Okusil, ale nechtěl pít. 35Ukřižovali ho a rozdělili si jeho šaty házejíce o ně los; 36pak seděli a střežili ho tam. 37Nad hlavu mu dali nápis o jeho provinění: „Toto je Ježíš, král Židů.“ 38Zároveň s ním byli ukřižováni dva lupiči, jeden po pravici a druhý po levici. 39Kolemjdoucí ho uráželi, potřásali hlavou 40a říkali: „Ty, který boříš svatyni a ve třech dnech ji stavíš, zachraň se, jsi-li Syn Boží, a sestup s kříže!“ 41Podobně se posmívali i velekněží s učiteli Zákona a staršími. Říkali: 42„Jiné zachránil, sám sebe zachránit nemůže. Je králem Izraele, ať nyní sestoupí s kříže, a my v něho uvěříme. 43Složil naději v Bohu, ať ho nyní vysvobodí, stojí-li o něho. Vždyť řekl: ‚Jsem Boží Syn!‘“ 44Stejně ho tupili i lupiči, kteří byli ukřižováni spolu s ním. 45Od šesté hodiny nastala tma po celé zemi až do hodiny deváté. 46Kolem deváté hodiny zvolal Ježíš silným hlasem: „Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?“ To jest: ‚Můj Bože, můj Bože, proč jsi mne opustil?‘ 47A když to uslyšeli někteří z těch, kdo tam stáli, říkali: „Ten člověk volá Eliáše.“ 48Jeden z nich ihned vyběhl, vzal houbu, naplnil ji octem, připevnil na rákosovou hůl a dával mu pít. 49Ostatní však říkali: „Nech ho, ať uvidíme, jestli přijde Eliáš a zachrání ho!“ 50Ale Ježíš znovu vykřikl silným hlasem a vypustil ducha. 51A hle, opona svatyně se roztrhla ve dví odshora až dolů a země se zatřásla a skály se roztrhly 52a hroby se otevřely a mnohá těla zesnulých svatých byla vzkříšena; 53když vyšli z hrobů po jeho vzkříšení, vstoupili do svatého města a ukázali se mnohým. 54Když setník a ti, kdo s ním střežili Ježíše, uviděli zemětřesení a to, co se stalo, velmi se ulekli a řekli: „Opravdu to byl Boží Syn!“ 55Bylo tam mnoho žen dívajících se zdaleka, které se vydaly za Ježíšem z Galileje a sloužily mu. 56Mezi nimi byla Marie Magdalská, Marie, matka Jakubova a Josefova, a matka synů Zebedeových. 57Když nastal večer, přišel bohatý člověk z Arimatie, jménem Josef, který se také sám stal Ježíšovým učedníkem. 58Ten přišel k Pilátovi a požádal o Ježíšovo tělo. Tehdy Pilát rozkázal, aby mu to tělo vydali. 59Josef tělo vzal, zavinul je do čistého plátna 60a položil je do své nové hrobky, kterou vytesal ve skále. Pak ke vchodu do hrobky přivalil veliký kámen a odešel. 61Byla tam Marie Magdalská a ta druhá Marie a seděly naproti hrobu. 62Nazítří, to je po přípravě na svátek, se u Piláta shromáždili velekněží a farizeové 63a řekli: „Pane, vzpomněli jsme si, že onen svůdce ještě za svého života řekl: ‚Po třech dnech vstanu. ‘ 64Rozkaž tedy, ať je do třetího dne hrob zajištěn, aby nepřišli jeho učedníci, neukradli ho a neřekli lidu: ‚Vstal z mrtvých.‘ A bude poslední blud horší než ten první.“ 65Pilát jim řekl: „Máte stráž. Jděte a zabezpečte to, jak umíte.“ 66Oni pak šli a zabezpečili hrob tak, že zapečetili kámen a postavili k němu stráž.
Jamieson Fausset Brown Bible Commentary 3
JESUS LED AWAY TO PILATE--REMORSE AND SUICIDE OF JUDAS. ( = Mr 15:1
; Lc 23:1
; Jn 18:28
). (Mt 27:1
Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned--The condemnation, even though not unexpected, might well fill him with horror. But perhaps this unhappy man expected, that, while he got the bribe, the Lord would miraculously escape, as He had once and again done before, out of His enemies power: and if so, his remorse would come upon him with all the greater keenness.
repented himself--but, as the issue too sadly showed, it was "the sorrow of the world, which worketh death" (2Co 7:10
and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders--A remarkable illustration of the power of an awakened conscience. A short time before, the promise of this sordid pelf was temptation enough to his covetous heart to outweigh the most overwhelming obligations of duty and love; now, the possession of it so lashes him that he cannot use it, cannot even keep it! 4
Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood--What a testimony this to Jesus! Judas had been with Him in all circumstances for three years; his post, as treasurer to Him and the Twelve (Jn 12:6
), gave him peculiar opportunity of watching the spirit, disposition, and habits of his Master; while his covetous nature and thievish practices would incline him to dark and suspicious, rather than frank and generous, interpretations of all that He said and did. If, then, he could have fastened on one questionable feature in all that he had so long witnessed, we may be sure that no such speech as this would ever have escaped his lips, nor would he have been so stung with remorse as not to be able to keep the money and survive his crime.
And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that--"Guilty or innocent is nothing to us: We have Him now--begone!" Was ever speech more hellish uttered? 5
And he cast down the pieces of silver--The sarcastic, diabolical reply which he had got, in place of the sympathy which perhaps he expected, would deepen his remorse into an agony.
in the temple--the temple proper, commonly called "the sanctuary," or "the holy place," into which only the priests might enter. How is this to be explained? Perhaps he flung the money in after them. But thus were fulfilled the words of the prophet--"I cast them to the potter in the house of the Lord" (Zac 11:13
and departed, and went and hanged himself--For the details, see on Hch 1:18
And the chief priests took the silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for to put them into the treasury--"the Corban," or chest containing the money dedicated to sacred purposes (see on Mt 15:5
because it is the price of blood--How scrupulous now! But those punctilious scruples made them unconsciously fulfil the Scripture. 9
Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying-- (Zac 11:12
). Never was a complicated prophecy, otherwise hopelessly dark, more marvellously fulfilled. Various conjectures have been formed to account for Matthew's ascribing to Jeremiah a prophecy found in the book of Zechariah. But since with this book he was plainly familiar, having quoted one of its most remarkable prophecies of Christ but a few chapters before (Mt 21:4
), the question is one more of critical interest than real importance. Perhaps the true explanation is the following, from LIGHTFOOT: "Jeremiah of old had the first place among the prophets, and hereby he comes to be mentioned above all the rest in Mt 16:14
; because he stood first in the volume of the prophets [as he proves from the learned DAVID KIMCHI] therefore he is first named. When, therefore, Matthew produceth a text of Zechariah under the name of JEREMY, he only cites the words of the volume of the prophets under his name who stood first in the volume of the prophets. Of which sort is that also of our Saviour (Lc 24:41
), "All things must be fulfilled which are written of Me in the Law, and the Prophets, and the Psalms," or the Book of Hagiographa, in which the Psalms were placed first." 51
SIGNS AND CIRCUMSTANCES FOLLOWING THE DEATH OF THE LORD JESUS--HE IS TAKEN DOWN FROM THE CROSS, AND BURIED--THE SEPULCHRE IS GUARDED. ( = Mr 15:38
; Lc 23:47
; Jn 19:31
). (Mat. 27:51-66)
And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom--This was the thick and gorgeously wrought veil which was hung between the "holy place" and the "holiest of all," shutting out all access to the presence of God as manifested "from above the mercy seat and from between the cherubim"--"the Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest" (He 9:8
). Into this holiest of all none might enter, not even the high priest, save once a year, on the great day of atonement, and then only with the blood of atonement in his hands, which he sprinkled "upon and before the mercy seat seven times" (Lv 16:14
) --to signify that access for sinners to a holy God is only through atoning blood. But as they had only the blood of bulls and of goats, which could not take away sins (He 10:4
), during all the long ages that preceded the death of Christ the thick veil remained; the blood of bulls and of goats continued to be shed and sprinkled; and once a year access to God through an atoning sacrifice was vouchsafed--in a picture, or rather, was dramatically represented, in those symbolical actions--nothing more. But now, the one atoning Sacrifice being provided in the precious blood of Christ, access to this holy God could no longer be denied; and so the moment the Victim expired on the altar, that thick veil which for so many ages had been the dread symbol of separation between God and guilty men was, without a hand touching it, mysteriously "rent in twain from top to bottom"--"the Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was NOW made manifest!" How emphatic the statement, from top to bottom; as if to say, Come boldly now to the Throne of Grace; the veil is clean gone; the mercy seat stands open to the gaze of sinners, and the way to it is sprinkled with the blood of Him--"who through the eternal Spirit hath offered Himself without spot to God!" Before, it was death to go in, now it is death to stay out. See more on this glorious subject on He 10:19
An Earthquake--The Rocks Rent--The Graves Opened, that the Saints Which Slept in Them Might Come Forth after Their Lord's Resurrection (Mt 27:51
and the earth did quake--From what follows it would seem that this earthquake was local, having for its object the rending of the rocks and the opening of the graves.
and the rocks rent--"were rent"--the physical creation thus sublimely proclaiming, at the bidding of its Maker, the concussion which at that moment was taking place in the moral world at the most critical moment of its history. Extraordinary rents and fissures have been observed in the rocks near this spot. 52
And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose--These sleeping saints (see on 1Ts 4:14
) were Old Testament believers, who--according to the usual punctuation in our version--were quickened into resurrection life at the moment of their Lord's death, but lay in their graves till His resurrection, when they came forth. But it is far more natural, as we think, and consonant with other Scriptures, to understand that only the graves were opened, probably by the earthquake, at our Lord's death, and this only in preparation for the subsequent exit of those who slept in them, when the Spirit of life should enter into them from their risen Lord, and along with Him they should come forth, trophies of His victory over the grave. Thus, in the opening of the graves at the moment of the Redeemer's expiring, there was a glorious symbolical proclamation that the death which had just taken place had "swallowed up death in victory"; and whereas the saints that slept in them were awakened only by their risen Lord, to accompany Him out of the tomb, it was fitting that "the Prince of Life . . . should be the First that should rise from the dead" (Hch 26:23
; 1Co 15:20
, 1Co 15:23
; Col 1:18
; Ap 1:5
and went into the holy city--that city where He, in virtue of whose resurrection they were now alive, had been condemned.
and appeared unto many--that there might be undeniable evidence of their own resurrection first, and through it of their Lord's. Thus, while it was not deemed fitting that He Himself should appear again in Jerusalem, save to the disciples, provision was made that the fact of His resurrection should be left in no doubt. It must be observed, however, that the resurrection of these sleeping saints was not like those of the widow of Nain's son, of Jairus' daughter, of Lazarus, and of the man who "revived and stood upon his feet," on his dead body touching the bones of Elisha (2R 13:21
) --which were mere temporary recallings of the departed spirit to the mortal body, to be followed by a final departure of it "till the trumpet shall sound." But this was a resurrection once for all, to life everlasting; and so there is no room to doubt that they went to glory with their Lord, as bright trophies of His victory over death.
The Centurion's Testimony (Mt 27:54
Now when the centurion--the military superintendent of the execution.
and they that were with him watching Jesus, saw the earthquake--or felt it and witnessed its effects.
and those things that were done--reflecting upon the entire transaction.
they feared greatly--convinced of the presence of a Divine Hand.
saying, Truly this was the Son of God--There cannot be a reasonable doubt that this expression was used in the Jewish sense, and that it points to the claim which Jesus made to be the Son of God, and on which His condemnation expressly turned. The meaning, then, clearly is that He must have been what He professed to be; in other words, that He was no impostor. There was no medium between those two. See, the similar testimony of the penitent thief--"This man hath done nothing amiss"--on Lc 23:41
The Galilean Women (Mt 27:55
And many women were there beholding afar off, which followed Jesus--The sense here would be better brought out by the use of the pluperfect, "which had followed Jesus."
from Galilee, ministering unto him--As these dear women had ministered to Him during His glorious missionary tours in Galilee (see on Lc 8:1
), so from this statement it should seem that they accompanied him and ministered to His wants from Galilee on His final journey to Jerusalem. 56
Among which was Mary Magdalene--(See on Lc 8:2
and Mary the mother of James and Joses--the wife of Cleophas, or rather Clopas, and sister of the Virgin (Jn 19:25
). See on Mt 13:55
and the mother of Zebedee's children--that is, Salome: compare Mr 15:40
. All this about the women is mentioned for the sake of what is afterwards to be related of their purchasing spices to anoint their Lord's body.
The Taking Down from the Cross and the Burial (Mt 27:57
For the exposition of this portion, see on Jn 19:38
The Women Mark the Sacred Spot that They Might Recognize It on Coming Thither to Anoint the Body (Mt 27:61
And there was Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary--"the mother of James and Joses," mentioned before (Mt 27:56
sitting over against the sepulchre--(See on Mr 16:1
The Sepulchre Guarded (Mt 27:62
Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation--that is, after six o'clock of our Saturday evening. The crucifixion took place on the Friday and all was not over till shortly before sunset, when the Jewish sabbath commenced; and "that sabbath day was an high day" (Jn 19:31
), being the first day of the feast of unleavened bread. That day being over at six on Saturday evening, they hastened to take their measures. 63
Saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver--Never, remarks BENGEL, will you find the heads of the people calling Jesus by His own name. And yet here there is betrayed a certain uneasiness, which one almost fancies they only tried to stifle in their own minds, as well as crush in Pilate's, in case he should have any lurking suspicion that he had done wrong in yielding to them.
said, while he was yet alive--Important testimony this, from the lips of His bitterest enemies, to the reality of Christ's death; the corner-stone of the whole Christian religion.
After three days--which, according to the customary Jewish way of reckoning, need signify no more than "after the commencement of the third day."
I will rise again--"I rise," in the present tense, thus reporting not only the fact that this prediction of His had reached their ears, but that they understood Him to look forward confidently to its occurring on the very day named. 64
Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure--by a Roman guard.
until the third day--after which, if He still lay in the grave, the imposture of His claims would be manifest to all.
and say unto the people, he is risen from the dead--Did they really fear this?
so the last error shall be worse than the first--the imposture of His pretended resurrection worse than that of His pretended Messiahship. 65
Pilate said unto them, Ye have a watch--The guards had already acted under orders of the Sanhedrim, with Pilate's consent; but probably they were not clear about employing them as a night watch without Pilate's express authority.
go your way, make it as sure as ye can--as ye know how, or in the way ye deem securest. Though there may be no irony in this speech, it evidently insinuated that if the event should be contrary to their wish, it would not be for want of sufficient human appliances to prevent it. 66
So they went, and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone--which Mark (Mr 16:4
) says was "very great."
and setting a watch--to guard it. What more could man do? But while they are trying to prevent the resurrection of the Prince of Life, God makes use of their precautions for His own ends. Their stone-covered, seal-secured sepulchre shall preserve the sleeping dust of the Son of God free from all indignities, in undisturbed, sublime repose; while their watch shall be His guard of honor until the angels shall come to take their place.