1What then shall we say that Abraham our father has found according to the flesh?2For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not before God.3For what does the Scripture say? Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.4Now to him who works, the wages are not counted according to grace but according to debt.5But to him who does not work but believes on Him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is accounted unto righteousness,6just as David also describes the blessedness of the man to whom God accounts righteousness apart from works:7Blessed are those whose lawless deeds are forgiven, and whose sins are covered;8blessed is the man to whom the Lord shall not account sin.9Does this blessedness then come upon the circumcised only, or upon the uncircumcised also? For we say that faith was accounted to Abraham for righteousness.10How then was it accounted? While he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision.11And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while still uncircumcised, that he might be the father of all those believing through uncircumcision, that righteousness might be accounted to them also;12and the father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham while still uncircumcised.13For the promise that he would be the heir of the world was not to Abraham or to his seed through the Law, but through the righteousness of faith.14For if those who are of the Law are heirs, faith is made void and the promise has been annulled,15because the Law brings about wrath; for where there is no law, neither is there transgression.16Therefore it is of faith that it might be according to grace, so that the promise might be sure to all the seed, not only to those who are of the Law, but also to those who are of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all 17(as it is written, I have made you a father of many nations) in the presence of Him whom he believed; God, who makes the dead alive and calls those things which do not exist as though they did; 18who, against hope, believed in hope, so that he might become the father of many nations, according to what was spoken, So shall your seed be.19And not being weak in faith, he did not consider his own body, already dead (since he was about a hundred years old), and the deadness of Sarah's womb;20he did not hesitate at the promise of God through unbelief, but was strengthened in faith, giving glory to God,21and being fully assured that what He had promised He is also able to perform.22And therefore it was accounted to him for righteousness.23Now it was not written for his sake alone, that it was accounted to him,24but also for us, to whom it shall be accounted, believing in Him who raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead,25who was delivered up because of our trespasses, and was raised for our justification.
Matthew Henry - Concise Commentary 1
To meet the views of the Jews, the apostle first refers to the example of Abraham, in whom the Jews gloried as their most renowned forefather. However exalted in various respects, he had nothing to boast in the presence of God, being saved by grace, through faith, even as others. Without noticing the years which passed before his call, and the failures at times in his obedience, and even in his faith, it was expressly stated in Scripture that he believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness, Gen 15:6
. From this example it is observed, that if any man could work the full measure required by the law, the reward must be reckoned as a debt, which evidently was not the case even of Abraham, seeing faith was reckoned to him for righteousness. When believers are justified by faith, their faith being counted for righteousness, their faith does not justify them as a part, small or great, of their righteousness; but as the appointed means of uniting them to Him who has chosen as the name whereby he shall be called, the Lord our Righteousness. Pardoned people are the only blessed people. It clearly appears from the Scripture, that Abraham was justified several years before his circumcision. It is, therefore, plain that this rite was not necessary in order to justification. It was a sign of the original corruption of human nature. And it was such a sign as was also an outward seal, appointed not only to confirm God's promises to him and to his seed, and their obligation to be the Lord's, but likewise to assure him of his being already a real partaker of the righteousness of faith. Thus Abraham was the spiritual forefather of all believers, who walked after the example of his obedient faith. The seal of the Holy Spirit in our sanctification, making us new creatures, is the inward evidence of the righteousness of faith. 13
The promise was made to Abraham long before the law. It points at Christ, and it refers to the promise, Gen 12:3
. In Thee shall all families of the earth be blessed. The law worketh wrath, by showing that every transgressor is exposed to the Divine displeasure. As God intended to give men a title to the promised blessings, so he appointed it to be by faith, that it might be wholly of grace, to make it sure to all who were of the like precious faith with Abraham, whether Jews or Gentiles, in all ages. The justification and salvation of sinners, the taking to himself the Gentiles who had not been a people, were a gracious calling of things which are not, as though they were; and this giving a being to things that were not, proves the almighty power of God. The nature and power of Abraham's faith are shown. He believed God's testimony, and looked for the performance of his promise, firmly hoping when the case seemed hopeless. It is weakness of faith, that makes a man lie poring on the difficulties in the way of a promise. Abraham took it not for a point that would admit of argument or debate. Unbelief is at the bottom of all our staggerings at God's promises. The strength of faith appeared in its victory over fears. God honours faith; and great faith honours God. It was imputed to him for righteousness. Faith is a grace that of all others gives glory to God. Faith clearly is the instrument by which we receive the righteousness of God, the redemption which is by Christ; and that which is the instrument whereby we take or receive it, cannot be the thing itself, nor can it be the gift thereby taken and received. Abraham's faith did not justify him by its own merit or value, but as giving him a part in Christ. 23
The history of Abraham, and of his justification, was recorded to teach men of after-ages; those especially to whom the gospel was then made known. It is plain, that we are not justified by the merit of our own works, but by faith in Jesus Christ and his righteousness; which is the truth urged in this and the foregoing chapter, as the great spring and foundation of all comfort. Christ did meritoriously work our justification and salvation by his death and passion, but the power and perfection thereof, with respect to us, depend on his resurrection. By his death he paid our debt, in his resurrection he received our acquittance, Isa 53:8
. When he was discharged, we, in Him and together with Him, received the discharge from the guilt and punishment of all our sins. This last verse is an abridgement or summary of the whole gospel.