1UndG2532 er fingG756 an, inG1722 GleichnissenG3850 zu ihnenG846 zu redenG3004: Ein MenschG444 pflanzteG5452 einen WeinbergG290 undG2532 setzteG4060 einen ZaunG5418 um denselben undG2532 grubG3736 einen KeltertrogG5276 undG2532 bauteG3618 einen TurmG4444; undG2532 er verdingteG1554 ihnG846 an WeingärtnerG1092 undG2532 reisteG589 außer LandesG589. 2UndG2532 er sandteG649 zur bestimmten ZeitG2540 einen KnechtG1401 zuG4314 den WeingärtnernG1092, auf daßG2443 er vonG3844 den WeingärtnernG1092 vonG575 der FruchtG2590 des WeinbergsG290 empfingeG2983. 3Sie aberG1161 nahmenG2983 ihn, schlugenG1194 ihnG846 undG2532 sandtenG649 ihn leerG2756 fort. 4UndG2532 wiederumG3825 sandteG649 er einen anderenG243 KnechtG1401 zuG4314 ihnenG846; und denG2548 verwundetenG3036 sie [durch Steinwürfe]G3036 am KopfG2775 undG2532 sandtenG649 ihn entehrtG821 fortG649. 5UndG2532 [wiederum]G3825 sandteG649 er einen anderenG243, und denG2548 tötetenG615 sie; undG2532 vieleG4183 andereG243 G3303: die einen schlugenG1194 sie,G1161 die anderen tötetenG615 sie. 6Da erG846 nunG2089 nochG3767 einenG1520 geliebtenG27 SohnG5207 hatteG2192, sandteG649 er auchG2532 ihnG846, den letztenG2078, zuG4314 ihnenG846, indem er sprachG3004 G3754: Sie werden sich vorG1788 meinemG3450 SohneG5207 scheuenG1788. 7JeneG1565 WeingärtnerG1092 aberG1161 sprachenG2036 zueinanderG4314 G1438 G3754: DieserG3754 G3778 istG2076 der ErbeG2818; kommtG1205, laßtG615 uns ihnG846 tötenG615, undG2532 das ErbeG2817 wirdG2071 unserG2257 seinG2071. 8UndG2532 sie nahmenG2983 ihnG846 und tötetenG615 ihn undG2532 warfenG1544 ihn zum WeinbergG290 hinausG1854. 9WasG5101 wirdG4160 nunG3767 der HerrG2962 des WeinbergsG290 tunG4160 ? Er wird kommenG2064 undG2532 die WeingärtnerG1092 umbringenG622 undG2532 den WeinbergG290 anderenG243 gebenG1325. 10HabtG314 ihr nichtG3761 auch dieseG5026 SchriftG1124 gelesenG314: "Der SteinG3037, denG3739 die BauleuteG3618 verworfenG593 haben, dieserG3778 istG1096 zumG1519 EcksteinG2776 G1137 gewordenG1096; 11vonG3844 dem HerrnG2962 istG1096 diesG3778 geschehenG1096 , undG2532 istG2076 wunderbarG2298 inG1722 unserenG2257 AugenG3788 "? 12UndG2532 sie suchtenG2212 ihnG846 zu greifenG2902, undG2532 sie fürchtetenG5399 die VolksmengeG3793; dennG1063 sie erkanntenG1097, daßG3754 er das GleichnisG3850 aufG4314 sieG846 geredetG2036 hatte. UndG2532 sie ließenG863 ihnG846 und gingenG565 hinweg. 13UndG2532 sie sendenG649 etlicheG5100 der PharisäerG5330 undG2532 der HerodianerG2265 zuG4314 ihmG846, auf daßG2443 sie ihnG846 in der RedeG3056 fingenG64. 14Sie aberG1161 kommenG2064 und sagenG3004 zu ihmG846: LehrerG1320, wir wissenG1492, daßG3754 du wahrhaftigG227 bistG1488 undG2532 dichG4671 umG4012 niemandenG3762 kümmerstG3756 G3199; dennG1063 du siehstG991 nichtG3756 auf die PersonG1519 G4383 der MenschenG444, sondernG235 lehrstG1321 den WegG3598 GottesG2316 inG1909 WahrheitG225; ist es erlaubtG1832, dem KaiserG2541 SteuerG2778 zu gebenG1325 oderG2228 nichtG3756 ? sollen wir sie gebenG1325, oderG2228 sollen wir sie nichtG3361 gebenG1325 ? 15Da er aberG1161 ihreG846 HeucheleiG5272 kannteG1492, sprachG2036 er zu ihnenG846: WasG5101 versuchetG3985 ihr michG3165 ? BringetG5342 mirG3427 einen DenarG1220, auf daßG2443 ich ihn seheG1492. 16Sie aberG1161 brachtenG5342 ihn. UndG2532 er sprichtG3004 zu ihnenG846: WessenG5101 ist diesesG3778 BildG1504 undG2532 die ÜberschriftG1923 ? UndG1161 sie sprachenG2036 zu ihmG846: Des KaisersG2541. 17UndG2532 JesusG2424 antworteteG611 und sprachG2036 zu ihnenG846: So gebetG591 dem KaiserG2541, was des KaisersG2541 istG3588, undG2532 G2316 Gott, was GottesG2316 istG3588. UndG2532 sie verwundertenG2296 sich überG1909 ihnG846. 18UndG2532 es kommenG2064 SadducäerG4523 zuG4314 ihmG846, welcheG3748 sagenG3004, es gebeG1511 keineG3361 AuferstehungG386; undG2532 sie fragtenG1905 ihnG846 und sprachenG3004: 19LehrerG1320, MosesG3475 hat unsG2254 geschriebenG1125 G3754: WennG1437 jemandesG5100 BruderG80 stirbtG599 undG2532 hinterläßtG2641 ein WeibG1135 undG2532 hinterläßtG863 keineG3361 KinderG5043, daßG2443 seinG846 BruderG80 seinG846 WeibG1135 nehmeG2983 undG2532 seinemG846 BruderG80 SamenG4690 erweckeG1817. 20Es warenG2258 siebenG2033 BrüderG80. UndG2532 der ersteG4413 nahmG2983 ein WeibG1135; undG2532 als er starbG599, hinterließG863 er keinenG3756 SamenG4690; 21undG2532 der zweiteG1208 nahmG2983 sieG846 undG2532 starbG599 ,G2532, und auchG3761 erG846 hinterließG863 keinenG3761 SamenG4690; undG2532 der dritteG5154 desgleichenG5615. 22UndG2532 die siebenG2033 [nahmenG2983 sieG846 und]G2532 hinterließenG863 keinenG3756 SamenG4690. Am letztenG2078 von allenG3956 starbG599 auchG2532 das WeibG1135. 23InG1722 der AuferstehungG386 G3767, wennG3752 sie auferstehenG450 werden, wessenG5101 WeibG1135 von ihnenG846 wird sie seinG2071 ? dennG1063 die siebenG2033 habenG2192 sieG846 zum WeibeG1135 gehabtG2192. 24UndG2532 JesusG2424 antworteteG611 und sprachG2036 zu ihnenG846: IrretG4105 ihr deshalbG1223 G5124 nichtG3756, indem ihr die SchriftenG1124 nichtG3361 kennetG1492, nochG3366 die KraftG1411 GottesG2316 ? 25DennG1063 wennG3752 sie ausG1537 den TotenG3498 auferstehenG450, heiratenG1060 sie nichtG3777, nochG3777 werden sie verheiratetG1061, sondernG235 sie sindG1526 wieG5613 EngelG32 G3588 inG1722 den HimmelnG3772. 26Was aberG1161 die TotenG3498 betrifftG4012, daßG3754 sie auferstehenG1453, habtG314 ihr nichtG3756 inG1722 dem BucheG976 Moses'G3475 gelesenG314, "inG1909 dem DornbuschG942 ", wieG5613 GottG2316 zu ihmG846 redeteG2036 und sprachG3004: "IchG1473 bin der GottG2316 AbrahamsG11 undG2532 der GottG2316 IsaaksG2464 undG2532 der GottG2316 JakobsG2384 "? 27Er istG2076 nichtG3756 der GottG2316 der TotenG3498, sondernG235 G2316 der LebendigenG2198. IhrG5210 irretG4105 alsoG3767 sehrG4183. 28UndG2532 einerG1520 der SchriftgelehrtenG1122, der gehörtG191 hatte, wie sieG846 sich befragtenG4802, tratG4334 herzu, und als er wahrnahmG1492, daßG3754 er ihnenG846 gutG2573 geantwortetG611 hatte, fragteG1905 er ihnG846: WelchesG4169 GebotG1785 istG2076 das ersteG4413 von allenG3956 ? 29JesusG2424 aberG1161 antworteteG611 ihmG846 G3754: Das ersteG4413 GebotG1785 von allenG3956 ist: "HöreG191, IsraelG2474: der HerrG2962, unserG2257 GottG2316, istG2076 ein einigerG1520 HerrG2962; 30undG2532 du sollst den HerrnG2962, deinenG4675 GottG2316, liebenG25 ausG1537 deinemG4675 ganzenG3650 HerzenG2588 undG2532 ausG1537 deinerG4675 ganzenG3650 SeeleG5590 undG2532 ausG1537 deinemG4675 ganzenG3650 VerstandeG1271 undG2532 ausG1537 deinerG4675 ganzenG3650 KraftG2479 ". [DiesG3778 ist das ersteG4413 GebotG1785.] 31UndG2532 das zweiteG1208, ihm gleicheG3664, ist diesesG3778: "Du sollst deinenG4675 NächstenG4139 liebenG25 wieG5613 dich selbstG4572 ". GrößerG3187 als dieseG5130 istG2076 keinG3756 anderesG243 GebotG1785. 32UndG2532 der SchriftgelehrteG1122 sprachG2036 zu ihmG846: RechtG2573, LehrerG1320, du hast nach derG1909 WahrheitG225 geredetG2036; dennG3754 er istG2076 ein einigerG1520 GottG2316, undG2532 da istG2076 keinG3756 andererG243 außerG4133 ihmG846; 33undG2532 ihnG846 liebenG25 ausG1537 ganzemG3650 HerzenG2588 undG2532 ausG1537 ganzemG3650 VerständnisG4907 undG2532 ausG1537 ganzerG3650 SeeleG5590 undG2532 ausG1537 ganzerG3650 KraftG2479, undG2532 den NächstenG4139 liebenG25 wieG5613 sich selbstG1438, istG2076 mehrG4119 als alleG3956 BrandopferG3646 undG2532 SchlachtopferG2378. 34UndG2532 als JesusG2424 sahG1492, daßG3754 er verständigG3562 geantwortetG611 hatte, sprachG2036 er zu ihmG846: Du bistG1488 nichtG3756 fernG3112 vomG575 ReicheG932 GottesG2316. UndG2532 hinfortG3765 wagteG5111 niemandG3762 ihnG846 zu befragenG1905. 35UndG2532 JesusG2424 hobG611 an und sprachG3004, als er imG1722 TempelG2411 lehrteG1321: WieG4459 sagenG3004 die SchriftgelehrtenG1122, daßG3754 der ChristusG5547 DavidsG1138 SohnG5207 seiG2076 ? 36[Denn]G1063 DavidG1138 selbstG846 hat inG1722 dem HeiligenG40 GeisteG4151 gesagtG2036: "Der HerrG2962 sprachG2036 zu meinemG3450 HerrnG2962: SetzeG2521 dich zuG1537 meinerG3450 RechtenG1188, bisG2193 G302 ich deineG4675 FeindeG2190 legeG5087 zum SchemelG5286 deinerG4675 FüßeG4228 ". 37DavidG1138 selbstG846 [also]G3767 nenntG3004 ihnG846 HerrG2962, undG2532 woherG4159 istG2076 er seinG846 SohnG5207 ? - UndG2532 die große MengeG4183 des VolkesG3793 hörteG191 ihnG846 gernG2234. 38UndG2532 er sprachG3004 zu ihnenG846 inG1722 seinerG846 LehreG1322: HütetG991 euch vorG575 den SchriftgelehrtenG1122, dieG3588 inG1722 langen GewändernG4749 einhergehenG4043 wollen undG2532 die BegrüßungenG783 aufG1722 den MärktenG58 liebenG2309 39undG2532 die ersten SitzeG4410 inG1722 den SynagogenG4864 undG2532 die ersten PlätzeG4411 beiG1722 den GastmählernG1173; 40welcheG3739 die HäuserG3614 der WitwenG5503 verschlingenG2719 undG2532 zum ScheinG4392 langeG3117 Gebete haltenG4336. DieseG3778 werden ein schwereresG4055 GerichtG2917 empfangenG2983. 41UndG2532 JesusG2424 setzteG2523 sich dem SchatzkastenG1049 gegenüberG2713 und sahG2334, wieG4459 die VolksmengeG3793 GeldG5475 inG1519 den SchatzkastenG1049 legteG906; undG2532 vieleG4183 ReicheG4145 legtenG906 vielG4183 einG906. 42UndG2532 eineG3391 armeG4434 WitweG5503 kamG2064 und legteG906 zweiG1417 ScherfleinG3016 einG906, dasG3603 istG2076 ein PfennigG2835. 43UndG2532 er riefG4341 seineG846 JüngerG3101 herzu und sprachG3004 zu ihnenG846: WahrlichG281, ich sageG3004 euchG5213 G3754: DieseG3778 armeG4434 WitweG5503 hatG906 mehrG4119 eingelegtG906 als alleG3956, die inG1519 den SchatzkastenG1049 eingelegtG906 haben. 44DennG1063 alleG3956 habenG906 vonG1537 ihremG846 ÜberflußG4052 eingelegtG906; dieseG3778 aberG1161 hat vonG1537 ihremG846 MangelG5304, allesG3956 wasG3745 sie hatteG2192, eingelegtG906, ihrenG846 ganzenG3650 LebensunterhaltG979.
Jamieson Fausset Brown Bible Commentary 13
ENTANGLING QUESTIONS ABOUT TRIBUTE THE RESURRECTION, AND THE GREAT COMMANDMENT, WITH THE REPLIES--CHRIST BAFFLES THE PHARISEES BY A QUESTION ABOUT DAVID, AND DENOUNCES THE SCRIBES. ( = Mat. 22:15-46; Luke 20:20-47). (Mark 12:13-40)
And they send unto him certain of the Pharisees--"their disciples," says Matthew (Matt 22:16
); probably young and zealous scholars in that hardening school.
and of the Herodians--(See on Matt 12:14
). In Luke 20:20
these willing tools are called "spies, which should feign themselves just [righteous] men, that they might take hold of His words, that so they might deliver Him unto the power and authority of the governor." Their plan, then, was to entrap Him into some expression which might be construed into disaffection to the Roman government; the Pharisees themselves being notoriously discontented with the Roman yoke.
Tribute to Cćsar (Mark 12:14
And when they were come, they say unto him, Master--Teacher.
we know that thou art true, and carest for no man; for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth--By such flattery--though they said only the truth--they hoped to throw Him off His guard.
Is it lawful to give tribute to Cćsar, or not?--It was the civil poll tax paid by all enrolled in the "census." See on Matt 17:25
Shall we give, or shall we not give? But he, knowing their hypocrisy--"their wickedness" (Matt 22:18
); "their craftiness" (Luke 20:23
). The malignity of their hearts took the form of craft, pretending what they did not feel--an anxious desire to be guided aright in a matter which to a scrupulous few might seem a question of some difficulty. Seeing perfectly through this,
He said unto them, Why tempt ye me?--"hypocrites!"
bring me a penny that I may see it--"the tribute money" (Matt 22:19
And they brought it. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image--stamped upon the coin.
and superscription?--the words encircling it on the obverse side.
And they said unto him, Cćsar's. 17
And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Cćsar the things that are Cćsar's--Putting it in this general form, it was impossible for sedition itself to dispute it, and yet it dissolved the snare.
and to God the things that are God's--How much is there in this profound but to them startling addition to the maxim, and how incomparable is the whole for fulness, brevity, clearness, weight!
and they marvelled at him--"at His answer, and held their peace" (Luke 20:26
), "and left Him, and went their way" (Matt 22:22
The Resurrection (Mark 12:18
Then come unto him the Sadducees, which say there is no resurrection--"neither angel nor spirit" (Acts 23:7
). They were the materialists of the day. See on Acts 23:6
and they asked him, saying--as follows: 19
Master, Moses wrote unto us-- (Deut 25:5
If a man's brother die, and leave his wife behind him . . . And the seven had her, and left no seed: last of all the woman died also. 23
In the resurrection therefore when they shall rise, &c. 24
Do ye not therefore err, because ye know not the scriptures--regarding the future state.
neither the power of God?--before which a thousand such difficulties vanish. 25
For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage--"neither can they die any more" (Luke 20:36
). Marriage is ordained to perpetuate the human family; but as there will be no breaches by death in the future state, this ordinance will cease.
but are as the angels which are in heaven--In Luke (Luke 20:36
) it is "equal unto the angels." But as the subject is death and resurrection, we are not warranted to extend the equality here taught beyond the one point--the immortality of their nature. A beautiful clause is added in Luke (Luke 20:36
) --"and are the children of God"--not in respect of character, which is not here spoken of, but of nature--"being the children of the resurrection," as rising to an undecaying existence (Rom 8:21
, Rom 8:23
), and so being the children of their Father's immortality (1Tim 6:16
And as touching the dead, that they rise: have ye not read in the book of Moses--"even Moses" (Luke 20:37
), whom they had just quoted for the purpose of entangling Him.
how in the bush God spake unto him--either "at the bush," as the same expression is rendered in Luke 20:37
, that is, when he was there; or "in the [section of his history regarding the] bush." The structure of our verse suggests the latter sense, which is not unusual.
saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?-- (Exod 3:6
He is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living--not "the God of dead but [the God] of living persons." The word in brackets is almost certainly an addition to the genuine text, and critical editors exclude it. "For all live unto Him" (Luke 20:38
) --"in His view," or "in His estimation." This last statement--found only in Luke--though adding nothing to the argument, is an important additional illustration. It is true, indeed, that to God no human being is dead or ever will be, but all mankind sustain an abiding conscious relation to Him; but the "all" here means "those who shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world." These sustain a gracious covenant relation to God which cannot be dissolved. (Compare Rom 6:10
). In this sense our Lord affirms that for Moses to call the Lord the "GOD" of His patriarchal servants, if at that moment they had no existence, would be unworthy of Him. He "would be ashamed to be called their God, if He had not prepared for them a city" (Heb 11:16
). It was concluded by some of the early Fathers, from our Lord's resting His proof of the Resurrection on such a passage as this, instead of quoting some much clearer testimonies of the Old Testament, that the Sadducees, to whom this was addressed, acknowledged the authority of no part of the Old Testament but the Pentateuch; and this opinion has held its ground even till now. But as there is no ground for it in the New Testament, so JOSEPHUS is silent upon it; merely saying that they rejected the Pharisaic traditions. It was because the Pentateuch was regarded by all classes as the fundamental source of the Hebrew religion, and all the succeeding books of the Old Testament but as developments of it, that our Lord would show that even there the doctrine of the Resurrection was taught. And all the rather does He select this passage, as being not a bare annunciation of the doctrine in question, but as expressive of that glorious truth out of which the Resurrection springs. "And when the multitude heard this" (says Matt 22:23
), "they were astonished at His doctrine." "Then," adds Luke 20:39
, "certain of the scribes answering said, Master, thou hast well said"--enjoying His victory over the Sadducees. "And after that they durst not ask Him any [question at all]"--neither party could; both being for the time utterly foiled.
The Great Commandment (Mark 12:28
"But when the Pharisees had heard that He had put the Sadducees to silence, they were gathered together" (Matt 22:34
And one of the scribes--"a lawyer," says Matthew (Matt 22:35
); that is, teacher of the law.
came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him--manifestly in no bad spirit. When Matthew (Matt 22:35
) therefore says he came "tempting," or "trying him," as one of the Pharisaic party who seemed to enjoy the defeat He had given to the Sadducees, we may suppose that though somewhat priding himself upon his insight into the law, and not indisposed to measure his knowledge with One in whom he had not yet learned to believe, he was nevertheless an honest-hearted, fair disputant.
Which is the first commandment of all?--first in importance; the primary, leading commandment, the most fundamental one. This was a question which, with some others, divided the Jewish teachers into rival schools. Our Lord's answer is in a strain of respect very different from what He showed to cavillers--ever observing His own direction, "Give not that which is holy to the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine; lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you" (Matt 7:6
And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is--The readings here vary considerably. TISCHENDORF and TREGELLES read simply, "the first is"; and they are followed by MEYER and ALFORD. But though the authority for the precise form of the received text is slender, a form almost identical with it seems to have most weight of authority. Our Lord here gives His explicit sanction to the distinction between commandments of a more fundamental and primary character, and commandments of a more dependent and subordinate nature; a distinction of which it is confidently asserted by a certain class of critics that the Jews knew nothing, that our Lord and His apostles nowhere lay down, and which has been invented by Christian divines. (Compare Matt 23:23
Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God is one Lord--This every devout Jew recited twice every day, and the Jews do it to this day; thus keeping up the great ancient national protest against the polytheisms and pantheisms of the heathen world: it is the great utterance of the national faith in One Living and Personal God--"ONE JEHOVAH!" 30
And thou shalt--We have here the language of law, expressive of God's claims. What then are we here bound down to do? One word is made to express it. And what a word! Had the essence of the divine law consisted in deeds, it could not possibly have been expressed in a single word; for no one deed is comprehensive of all others embraced in the law. But as it consists in an affection of the soul, one word suffices to express it--but only one. Fear, though due to God and enjoined by Him, is limited in its sphere and distant in character. Trust, hope, and the like, though essential features of a right state of heart towards God, are called into action only by personal necessity, and so are--in a good sense, it is true, but still are properly--selfish affections; that is to say, they have respect to our own well-being. But LOVE is an all-inclusive affection, embracing not only every other affection proper to its object, but all that is proper to be done to its object; for as love spontaneously seeks to please its object, so, in the case of men to God, it is the native well spring of a voluntary obedience. It is, besides, the most personal of all affections. One may fear an event, one may hope for an event, one may rejoice in an event; but one can love only a Person. It is the tenderest, the most unselfish, the most divine of all affections. Such, then, is the affection in which the essence of the divine law is declared to consist.
Thou shalt love--We now come to the glorious Object of that demanded affection.
Thou shalt love the Lord, thy God--that is, Jehovah, the Self-Existent One, who has revealed Himself as the "I AM," and there is none else; who, though by His name JEHOVAH apparently at an unapproachable distance from His finite creatures, yet bears to thee a real and definite relationship, out of which arises His claim and thy duty--of LOVE. But with what are we to love Him? Four things are here specified. First, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God"
with thy heart--This sometimes means "the whole inner man" (as Pro 4:23
); but that cannot be meant here; for then the other three particulars would be superfluous. Very often it means "our emotional nature"--the seat of feeling as distinguished from our intellectual nature or the seat of thought, commonly called the "mind" (as in Phil 4:7
). But neither can this be the sense of it here; for here the heart is distinguished both from the "mind" and the "soul." The "heart," then, must here mean the sincerity of both the thoughts and the feelings; in other words, uprightness or true-heartedness, as opposed to a hypocritical or divided affection. But next, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God" with thy soul. This is designed to command our emotional nature: Thou shalt put feeling or warmth into thine affection. Further, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God"
with thy mind--This commands our intellectual nature: Thou shalt put intelligence into thine affection--in opposition to a blind devotion, or mere devoteeism. Lastly, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God"
with thy strength--This commands our energies: Thou shalt put intensity into thine affection--"Do it with thy might" (Eccl 9:10
). Taking these four things together, the command of the Law is, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy powers--with a sincere, a fervid, an intelligent, an energetic love." But this is not all that the Law demands. God will have all these qualities in their most perfect exercise. "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God," says the Law, "with all thy heart," or, with perfect sincerity; "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy soul," or, with the utmost fervor; "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy mind," or, in the fullest exercise of an enlightened reason; and "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy strength," or, with the whole energy of our being! So much for the First Commandment. 31
And the second is like--"unto it" (Matt 22:39
); as demanding the same affection, and only the extension of it, in its proper measure, to the creatures of Him whom we thus love--our brethren in the participation of the same nature, and neighbors, as connected with us by ties that render each dependent upon and necessary to the other.
Thou shall love thy neighbour as thyself--Now, as we are not to love ourselves supremely, this is virtually a command, in the first place, not to love our neighbor with all our heart and soul and mind and strength. And thus it is a condemnation of the idolatry of the creature. Our supreme and uttermost affection is to be reserved for God. But as sincerely as ourselves we are to love all mankind, and with the same readiness to do and suffer for them as we should reasonably desire them to show to us. The golden rule (Matt 7:12
) is here our best interpreter of the nature and extent of these claims.
There is none other commandment greater than these--or, as in Matt 22:40
, "On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets" (see on Matt 5:17
). It is as if He had said, "This is all Scripture in a nutshell; the whole law of human duty in a portable, pocket form." Indeed, it is so simple that a child may understand it, so brief that all may remember it, so comprehensive as to embrace all possible cases. And from its very nature it is unchangeable. It is inconceivable that God should require from his rational creatures anything less, or in substance anything else, under any dispensation, in any world, at any period throughout eternal duration. He cannot but claim this--all this--alike in heaven, in earth, and in hell! And this incomparable summary of the divine law belonged to the Jewish religion! As it shines in its own self-evidencing splendor, so it reveals its own true source. The religion from which the world has received it could be none other than a God-given religion! 32
And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master--Teacher.
thou hast said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he--The genuine text here seems clearly to have been, "There is one," without the word "God"; and so nearly all critical editors and expositors read. 33
And to love him with all the heart . . . and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices--more, that is, than all positive institutions; thereby showing insight into the essential difference between what is moral and in its own nature unchangeable, and what is obligatory only because enjoined, and only so long as enjoined. 34
And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly--rather, "intelligently," or "sensibly"; not only in a good spirit, but with a promising measure of insight into spiritual things.
he said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God--for he had but to follow out a little further what he seemed sincerely to own, to find his way into the kingdom. He needed only the experience of another eminent scribe who at a later period said, "We know that the law is spiritual, but I am carnal, sold under sin": who exclaimed, "O wretched man that I am! Who shall deliver me?" but who added, "I thank God through Jesus Christ!" (Rom 7:14
, Rom 7:24
). Perhaps among the "great company of the priests" and other Jewish ecclesiastics who "were obedient to the faith," almost immediately after the day of Pentecost (Acts 6:7
), this upright lawyer was one. But for all his nearness to the Kingdom of God, it may be he never entered it.
And no man after that durst ask any question--all feeling that they were no match for Him, and that it was vain to enter the lists with Him.
Christ Baffles the Pharisees Regarding David (Mark 12:35
And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the temple--and "while the Pharisees were gathered together" (Matt 22:41
How say the scribes that Christ is the son of David?--How come they to give it out that Messiah is to be the son of David? In Matthew (Matt 22:42
), Jesus asks them, "What think ye of Christ?" or of the promised and expected Messiah? "Whose son is He [to be]? They say unto Him, The son of David." The sense is the same. "He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call Him Lord?" (Matt 22:42
For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The Lord said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool-- (Ps 110:1
David therefore himself calleth him Lord; and whence is he then his son?--There is but one solution of this difficulty. Messiah is at once inferior to David as his son according to the flesh, and superior to him as the Lord of a kingdom of which David is himself a subject, not the sovereign. The human and divine natures of Christ, and the spirituality of His kingdom--of which the highest earthly sovereigns are honored if they be counted worthy to be its subjects--furnish the only key to this puzzle.
And the common people--the immense crowd.
heard him gladly--"And no man was able to answer Him a word; neither durst any man from that day forth ask Him any more questions" (Matt 22:46
The Scribes Denounced (Mark 12:38
And he said unto them in his doctrine--rather, "in His teaching"; implying that this was but a specimen of an extended discourse, which Matthew gives in full (Mat. 23:1-39). Luke says (Luke 20:45
) this was "in the audience of all the people said unto His disciples."
Beware of the scribes, which love--or like.
to go in long clothing--(see on Matt 23:5
and love salutations in the market-places, 39
And the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost rooms--or positions.
at feasts--On this love of distinction, see on Luke 14:7
; Matt 6:5
Which devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayers: these shall receive greater damnation--They took advantage of their helpless condition and confiding character to obtain possession of their property, while by their "long prayers" they made them believe they were raised far above "filthy lucre." So much the "greater damnation" awaited them. (Compare Matt 23:33
). A lifelike description this of the Romish clergy, the true successors of "the scribes."